Do you want to start a chilli farming business? If so, find here a detailed business plan guide to start and run chilly cultivation covering process, cost, soil requirement, etc.
Chilli is one of the most important cash crops in the spice segment. Green chilli and dried chilli both are popular. Chilli is used mainly for culinary purposes. It is used as a principal ingredient of various curries, and chutneys. It is also used for vegetables, spices, condiments, sauces, and pickles.
China, Mexico, India, Spain, and Nigeria are the major chilli-producing countries. Almost all the states of India Produce chilli. However, major chilli-producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and Rajasthan. Chillies are very similar to sweet bell peppers (Capsicum). But they have a hot fiery flavour instead of the sweet flavour associated with bell peppers.
Table of Contents
12 Steps to Start a Chilli Farming Business
1. Conduct Market Research
Before starting chilli farming, conduct thorough market research to understand the demand for chilli peppers in your target market. Identify potential buyers, including local markets, grocery stores, restaurants, and export opportunities. Understanding market trends and preferences will guide your cultivation choices.
2. Choose the Right Chili Variety
Chili peppers come in various shapes, sizes, and heat levels. Select chili varieties that are in demand and well-suited to your local climate and soil conditions. Some of the popular chili varieties are the following:
- Agnirekha: Plants tall and spreading, fruits long, bold, smooth, and light green in color. Duration is 180 days. The average yield of green” fruit is 250 quintals per hectare. The average yield of dry chilli is 27 quintals per hectare.
- Musahvadi: Fruits are smooth and medium long. Mature fruits are dark green with black patches, and ripe fruits are dark red with a retentive colour. Duration is 180 days.
- Phule Jyoti: Leaves are broad and dark green in colour. Fruits are smooth, medium-long, born in clusters of 5-6 with the pendant habit.
- Pbile Sai: It has high yield potential under rainfed conditions. It retains the colour in storage for 6-7 months.
- Suryamukhi: Plants are tall, spreading and branching habit from ground level, and leaves the broad and dark green. Fruits are smooth and medium-long.
- Phule Mukta: It has dark green foliage. The plants are tall and medium spreading. Fruits are small, dark green, and smooth.
- Surkta: It produces bright deep red fruits. Fruits are very hot in taste. It gives about 35% higher fruit yield compared to variety CA-960.
- Jayanti: Plants are medium to tall in height with light green foliage. Fruits are medium to long in length (9-10 cm).
- Parbhani Tejas: It has pungency. The fruits are longer (maximum 22 cm). The yield of dry red fruit is 18 quintals per hectare.
- Kankan Kirti: Dark green fruits turn red when mature, mildly pungent. It yields 12-14 tonnes per hectare of green chilli. Fruits have good keeping quality and good export potential.
3. Select an Ideal Location
Choose a suitable location for your chili farm. Chili plants thrive in well-drained soil with good sunlight. Ensure the soil is rich in organic matter and has proper drainage to prevent waterlogging.
4. Soil Preparation and Testing
Prepare the soil by plowing and adding organic matter like compost or well-rotted manure. Conduct a soil test to assess nutrient levels and pH. Adjust soil nutrients based on the test results.
Black soils which retain moisture for long periods are suitable for rainfed crops. While, well-drained soils, deltaic soils, and sandy loams are good under irrigated conditions. You can grow chilli in all types of soils from light sandy to heavy clay. The optimum soil pH for chilli is 5.8 to 6.5. Most of all, Chilli is very sensitive to waterlogging. Thoroughly plough the land 3-4 times followed by planking to level the field.
5. Agro-Climatic Condition For Chilli Farming
Chilli requires a warm and humid climate for its best growth. Also, it requires dry weather during the maturation of fruits. Chilli crop comes up well in tropical and subtropical regions. However, it has a wide range of adaptability. It can withstand heat and moderate cold to some extent.
You can grow chillies over a wide range of altitudes from sea level up to nearly 2 100 meters. It is generally a cold-weather crop. However, you can grow throughout the year under irrigation. The optimum temperature for the fruit set is 24 C. Night temperature below 10 C fruit set is restricted.
6. Planting and Spacing
Chili plants can be grown from seeds or seedlings. Plant seeds or seedlings in rows, leaving adequate spacing between plants to ensure proper airflow and sunlight. Proper spacing helps prevent disease and promotes healthy growth.
In order to cultivate chillies organically, a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet is to be left all around the conventional farm, depending upon the location of the farm. The produce from this buffer zone belt shall not be treated as organic. You can grow chilli organically as an inter or mixed crop provided all the other crops are grown following organic methods. It is desirable to include a leguminous crop in rotation with chilli.
7. Sources of Planting Material
A most popular option is raising nurseries. You must grow seeds of high-yielding varieties with tolerance to pests and diseases that may be used. Therefore, you must select from certified organic farms or from your own seed plot which is raised organically.
In addition, you can use chemically untreated seeds from local high-yielding varieties. You must do the treatment of seeds with any chemical fungicides or pesticides. However, it is always beneficial to adopt indigenous practices for seed treatment, wherever possible. You can do seed treatment with Trichoderma @ 10 9/kg of seed to prevent the incidence of seedling rot in the nursery.
8. Irrigation and Water Management
Chili plants require consistent watering, especially during dry spells. Implement an efficient irrigation system, such as drip irrigation, to ensure uniform water distribution while conserving water resources.
You can grow chilli under rain-fed conditions. However, You can also grow under irrigated conditions. You must take care to avoid using water contaminated with fertilizers, pesticides, and fungicides. You must irrigate the field judiciously. Stagnation of water should not be allowed in nursery beds and fields in order to avoid fungal infection.
9. Fertilization and Nutrient Management
Apply appropriate fertilizers based on soil nutrient deficiencies and plant growth stages. Nitrogen-rich fertilizers are often beneficial during the vegetative stage, while phosphorus and potassium are essential for flowering and fruiting.
Organic manures are the best option is chilli cultivation. However, you can use compost/farmyard manure from your own farm rather than from outside the farm. Apply 100q FYM or compost for one acre before transplanting. Apply 60kg N, 30kg P2O5, and 30kg K2O per acre.
10. Pest and Disease Management
Monitor your chili plants regularly for signs of pests and diseases. Common chili pests include aphids, whiteflies, and fruit flies. Implement integrated pest management (IPM) practices, including natural predators and organic pesticides, to control infestations.
To avoid infestation of root grub, you can apply well-rotten farmyard manure. Also, you can apply neem cake. Thrips, mites, aphids, Root grubs, and pod borers are the major pests in chilli farming. In conclusion, you can change agronomic practices to disturb the life cycle of the grub.
Rot and Dieback and bacterial wilt are the two major diseases of chillies. To avoid this, You must be careful in seed selection. In addition, you must adopt phytosanitary measures to check the diseases of chillies. Early removal of affected plants will control the spread of the diseases.
Chili peppers can be harvested at various stages of ripeness, depending on market demand. For green chilies, harvest when they are fully grown but still green. For red chilies, allow them to ripen fully on the plant. Use sharp scissors or shears to avoid damaging the plant.
You must harvest chillies at the right stage of maturity. You can harvest the ripe fruits at frequent intervals. Sun drying is a common practice in India. The preparation of the drying floor differs from tract to tract. You can obtain leveled and compacted floors for drying. Fruits are spread on drying yards in layers. Furthermore, avoid microbial activity and aflatoxin production during the drying process.
Green chillies are harvested after 60 days of transplanting and dry chillies are harvested after 90 days of transplanting. 5-6 picking is done for green chillies. 2-3 picking for red ripe fruits.
The yield varies according to the system of cultivation. The yield of dry chillies of the rain-fed crop is 200 – 400 kg and that of the irrigated crop is 600 – 1000 kg per acre. Most of all, the proportion of dry to fresh japed chillies varies from 25- to 40 percent.
12. Post-Harvest Handling
Proper post-harvest handling is crucial to maintain chili quality. Sort chilies based on size and quality, and remove any damaged or spoiled peppers. Store chilies in a cool, dry place to extend shelf life.
Frequently Asked Questions
Why Chilli Cultivation Business Is Profitable?
Some of the major reasons for the profitability of the chilli farming business are the following:
- Chilli cultivation is profitable with a small piece of land
- Green chilli has a good domestic market
- Dried chillies have different industry application
- Though chilli is a perishable item, you can store dried chilli also
- In addition, chilli has good export potential.
- Indian Spice Board promotes Chilli Farming
- You can have more profit from dried chilli
What are the ideal climate and temperature conditions for chilli farming in India?
Chilli plants thrive in warm to hot climates with temperatures between 20°C to 30°C (68°F to 86°F). They require plenty of sunlight, so regions with extended sunny periods are well-suited for chilli cultivation.
How long does it take for chilli plants to start producing peppers after planting?
Chilli plants typically start producing peppers within 60 to 90 days after planting. However, this can vary depending on the chilli variety, climate, and growing conditions.
What are some common pests and diseases that affect chilli plants, and how can they be managed?
Common pests include aphids, whiteflies, and fruit flies, while diseases like powdery mildew and bacterial wilt can affect chili plants. Integrated pest management (IPM) techniques, such as introducing natural predators, using organic pesticides, and maintaining good plant hygiene, can help manage these issues.
What are the different ways to sell chilli produce, and what markets should I target?
Chilli produce can be sold in local markets, to wholesalers, restaurants, and through direct-to-consumer channels like farmers’ markets. Target markets that align with your business goals and the demand for chilli in your region.
What are the Health Benefits of Chilli?
There are several benefits of chillis. Some of them are as follows:
- Fresh chilli peppers, red and green, are a rich source of vitamin C.
- In addition, they are also good in other antioxidants such as vitamins, and flavonoids like ß-carotene, a-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and cryptoxanthin.
- Chillies carry a good amount of minerals like potassium, manganese, iron, and magnesium.
- Chillies are also good in the B-complex group of vitamins such as niacin, pyridoxine (vitamin B-6), riboflavin and thiamin (vitamin B-1).
- It may also play a role in treating lung and prostate cancer and leukemia.
- Also, chilli is a potential metabolism booster for weight loss.
- In conclusion, we can say, chilli peppers have amazingly high levels of vitamins and minerals.
Are there any government schemes or subsidies available for chilli farmers in India?
Yes, the Indian government offers various schemes and subsidies to support agricultural activities, including chili farming. These schemes can include financial assistance, crop insurance, and access to better farming practices. It’s advisable to check with local agricultural authorities for specific programs in your area.
Can I grow multiple chilli varieties on the same farm, or should I focus on a single variety?
Growing multiple chili varieties on the same farm is possible, but it requires careful planning and management, as different varieties may have varying requirements. Some farmers opt to focus on a single variety initially and expand to other varieties as they gain experience.
What post-harvest practices are essential to ensure chilli quality and shelf life?
Post-harvest practices include sorting chilies based on size and quality, removing damaged or spoiled peppers, and proper storage in a cool, dry place. Packaging that protects chilies from moisture and sunlight can also extend their shelf life.
Are organic chilli farming methods viable, and are they in demand in the market?
Organic chili farming methods are viable and increasingly in demand, both domestically and internationally. Many consumers prefer organic produce, and it often commands higher prices in the market. Transitioning to organic methods may require additional certification and compliance with organic farming standards.
What are some key challenges that chili farmers may face, and how can they be overcome?
There are some challenges in chilli farming business. It includes pest infestations, adverse weather conditions, and market price fluctuations. Overcoming these challenges requires implementing sound farming practices, adopting pest management strategies, diversifying crops if necessary, and staying informed about market trends.