Commercial goat farming is a very lucrative and profitable venture which can be initiated with comparatively small capital investment. In India, revenue-wise goat farming is very popular among the small and marginal farmers and even among landless farmers.
You can start goat farming from your backyards with low capital or you can initiate a full-scale goat farming project with substantial capital investment. Before starting a commercial goat farming business, acquiring proper skills and knowledge are important.
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>Why is Goat Farming Profitable?
There are multiple reasons for the profitability of the goat farming business. Some of them are as follows:
- The initial investment needed for Goat farming is low.
- Due to their small body size and docile nature, housing requirements and management of mental problems with goats are less.
- Goats are friendly animals and enjoy being with people.
- Goats are prolific breeders and achieve sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 months gestation period in goats is short and at the age of 16-17 months, it starts giving milk. Twinning is very common and triplets and quadruplets are rare.
- In drought-prone areas risk of goat farming is very much less compared to other livestock species.
- Unlike, large animals, in commercial farm conditions, both male and female goats have equal value.
- Goats are ideal for mixed species grazing. The animal can thrive well on a wide variety of thorny bushes, weeds, crop residues, and agricultural by-products unsuitable for human consumption.
- Under proper management, goats can improve and maintain grazing land and reduce bush encroachment (biological control) without causing harm to the environment.
- Goats are 2.5 times more economical than sheep on free-range grazing under semi-arid conditions.
It is recommended to start a goat farming business on small scale and as your business grows steadily, plan for expansion.
Here are the 8 Steps to Start Goat Farming Business
1. Create a Business Plan
As with any livestock farming business, you must have a proper business plan in your hand. You must decide the breed, how many goats you will start, accommodation, feeding, health issues, etc. Accordingly, you will need to get the financial calculations with ROI. Return on investment is the most important factor because on that basis you will need to assess the financial investment.
Consider your budget and some other factor related to this business. How much capital do you have? How many facilities can you provide to your goats with this capital? Which product do you want to produce from your farm? What are the natural facilities available there for goat farming? Is there any market for selling your products at a proper price? Is there any grazing place near your farm?
If all the answers become positive then you should start a goat farming business of your own.
Recommended Reading – Best Agriculture/ Farming Business Ideas
2. Skills For Goat Farming Business
You must have proper skills and knowledge about goat farming, before starting the business. If you are not aware of the skills, it is advised to contact your local Animal Husbandry Departments for free training. They generally conduct free training sessions and workshops for small business entrepreneurs.
It is very helpful and effective. You can also contact existing and established goat farmers for more information and knowledge.
3. Breed Selection For Goat Farming
According to the desired product, selecting the right breed is the most crucial issue. There are different breeds out there that are considered profitable breed selection. But basically, it depends hugely on the region and climate of the location. Breeds are categorized into two-part pure breed and crossbreed.
Some of the popular pure breeds are the following:
- Tota Pari
- Black Bengal
Some of the popular crossbreeds are as follows:
- The crossbreed of Sirohi and black Bengal (Sirohi buck and black Bengal doe)
- A crossbreed of Jamnapari and Sirohi (Jamnapari buck and Sirohi doe)
- The crossbreed of black Bengal and Beetel. (Beetel buck and black Bengal doe)
4. Location & Housing For Goat Farming
A properly cleaned, hygienic, and spacious shed is required for the better growth of your goats. Depending on your land area, expenditure, and farm strength the shed area may vary. In general, it is being suggested that you must provide 10 Square Feet for a single goat accommodation.
It is advisable to use bricks and cement for the shed wall. 12 feet of height must be maintained and proper ventilation is needed. For the roof area, use the better quality asbestos which is a good heat absorbent in summer. Create one water reservoir or cemented tank to provide a fresh drinking water supply to goats every time. it should be outside of the shed area.
5. Fodder Planning For Goat Farming
Fodder planning plays an important role in health issues and cost management. In addition, with dry fodder, green fodder is very important to provide essential nutrients to the goats. Grazing of goats is very important for this you must have a surplus grazing area with greenery so as for proper movement of the goats which helps in their digestion and enhance metabolism.
Giving a properly balanced diet with the right ratio is important in goat feeding.
6. Health & Care In Goat Farming
Proper health care and vaccination must in this business. Make sure that a veterinarian doctor is available near your farm. If possible stock some necessary vaccines and medicines on your farm. And always vaccinate your goats timely. Goats can get sick very easily and they die very fast.
Goats need to be watched and treated early and fast. You need to plan on learning what is normal in your goats, and what is not normal, and have emergency medications on hand. Two hours differences in giving a medication may mean the difference between life and death. Here, from the list, you can find standard vaccine rules:
7. Vaccination Schedule for Goat Farming Project
|Foot & Mouth Disease||All cloven-footed animals||Polyvalent FMD vaccine||3 ml.|
|Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS)||cattle, buffalo||HS Vaccine||5 ml.|
|Black Quarter||cattle. buffalo||BQ Vaccine||5 ml.|
|Anthrax||All species of animals||Anthrax spore vaccine||1 ml.|
|Enterotoxemia (ET)||Sheep & Goat||ET Vaccine||5 ml.|
|Contagious Caprine Pleuro Pneumonia (CCPP)||Sheep & Goat||IVRI Vaccine||0.2 ml.|
|Peste Des Pettis Ruminants (PPR)||Sheep & Goat||PPR Vaccine||1 ml.|
|Brucella||Female cattle & Buffalo calf age 4-8 months only||Brucella Vaccine||2 ml.|
|Theileriosis||Cattle & calves above 2 months of age||Theileria Vaccine||3 ml.|
|Rabies||All species of animals||Rabies Post Bite Vaccine||1 ml.|
Note: Before any vaccination deworming should be compulsory to get better results.
8. Products From Goat Farming
Goats are multi-purpose animals. You can produce products like milk, meat, fiber, manure, and skin from the goats. In starting a goat farming business, it is essential to figure out the purpose of your goat farming business and what specific product you want to produce.
The market survey is important to deciding the product and you will need to take the decision on which product you will be going to produce and sell in the local market. Accordingly, you will need to choose the right breed.
The market survey is important to decide on the product and you will need to take the decision on which product you will be going to produce and sell in the local market. Accordingly, you will need to choose the right breed.
Goat farming business is a time-consuming business. You must learn about farm management, medication, fodder cultivation, and marketing your farm products. Daily basis record keeping will help you in getting confidence about the financials of your business and revenue return. Always plan for both the short term and long term for a successful goat farming business.