Initiating a small manufacturing business in India is generally considered as an opportunity. Manufacturing opportunity produces a product that can generate sufficient surplus. The product plays an important role in the small business manufacturing operation. Setup and financing of a manufacturing business require in-depth planning and plentiful resources.
The manufacturing industry is also heavily regulated by different Government Authorities. Here we articulate important things to consider in starting a small business manufacturing in India.
Steps to Follow to Start Small Manufacturing Business in India
1. Identify What It Takes In Starting A Small Business Manufacturing
Starting a manufacturing business involves a lot of commitments. Often manufacturing business calls for an up-front financial investment for specialized facilities, equipment, and raw material. Identifying the proper human resource requirement and recruiting skilled personnel is also important. Manufacturing processes come in different shape and size, such as a manual, semi-automatic and fully-automatic operation.
2. What You Need To Know About Starting A Small Business Manufacturing In India
In starting a manufacturing enterprise, you need to give careful consideration to a variety of concerns. You may have selected a great product, but the choice of becoming a manufacturer involves a lot more than selecting a perfect product. Ask yourself these questions before moving forward into a manufacturing business operation.
- Do I have what it takes to be a manufacturer?
- What product will I manufacture?
- How will I protect my rights to the product?
- What is the most effective method to manufacture my product?
- How much will it cost to produce my product
- How much will my product sell for and what is my profit margin?
- What is the market for my product; who will buy it; how will I market my product?
- How can I arrange finance for my enterprise?
- What are my tax obligations and can I get incentives or tax breaks for starting my business?
- How will I protect myself and the business from liability risks?
- What are other sources of information available for manufacturing business owners?
3. Making A Product Choice For Small Business Manufacturing
Selecting a right product is the most primary issue in getting success from manufacturing business. In a project conceptualization stage while making a product choice following factors are related to product need to be considered:
- Product Line – Depth, Width
- After Sales Service
- Ease of availability of raw material
- Process Technology
- Accessibility to the market
- Incentive and support from Government
If you are looking for a product that has export potential, the following additional factors need to be considered:
- Contents of export product portfolio
- special requirements for packaging to export the products
- What product adaptations are needed to be made for exporting a product to a specific country?
- WTO conditions involved e.g. “child labor free”, ISO 9000 certified, GMP followed etc.
4. Technology & Machinery For Small Business Manufacturing
Choice of technology and process involves the selecting right machinery. Only a customized detailed project report can give you the solution about the machinery and process with project cost. For some complex products, a process knows how has to be imported. In such cases, agreements for technology transfer should be made with due care to safeguard interest. A lot of appropriate technology is being developed at CSIR and Defense Research Labs and some of this technology can now be bought. Indigenously developed process know-how has intrinsic benefits such as appropriateness and relative inexpensiveness.
5. Arranging Finance For Small Business Manufacturing In India
No manufacturing business can take off without monetary support. This need for finance can be classified into following types:
- Term Loan (long & medium term)
- Working Capital Loan
- Seed Capital
- Hire Purchase Leasing For Machinery
- Angel Investment
- Loan Against Property
- Unsecured Business Loan
In arranging finance you must consider the several Government schemes and grant specially designed for SME. Regardless of the bank or types of loan, you are applying for, these documents are generally required for a loan application:
- Documentation for Loan Application
- Balance Sheet and Profit Loss Statement for last three consecutive years of firms owned by promoters
- Income Tax Assessment Certificates of Partners/Directors
- Proof of Possession of Land/Building
- An architectural estimate for construction cost.
- Partnership deed/Memorandum and Articles of Associations of Company
- Project Report
6. Unit Setup For Small Business Manufacturing
Setting up a manufacturing unit requires negotiating a favorable plot or shed purchase, organizing for proper construction of the building, design of interiors and finding good deals on equipment and machinery. The design of factory building has to be in consonance with the type of industry and must have an appropriate plant layout. An architect’s estimate of building construction is essential for loan applications. Further, the architect’s the certificate for money spent on the building is needed for disbursement of that loan.
Among the utilities of prime importance are power and water. In many cases getting power, connection causes the delay in setting up of the plant. Therefore, it is imperative to commence work on these aspects with diligent follow-up. Power connections are generally of either LT (Low Tension) or HT (High-tension) type. If connected load is up to 75 HP, LT connection is provided. For connected loads of 130 HP or higher only HT connection is provided.
You also need to obtain water connection. The water supply can be augmented by the installation of the tube-well or submersible pump.
7. 3M’s Small Business Manufacturing In India
Projections for manpower and staffing are made in the project report. However, it is necessary to time the induction of manpower in a planned manner. The engineers and operatives must be available before the installation of the machinery.
Choosing and ordering of right machinery are also of paramount importance. In many cases technology or process provides us with specifications which are not provided, then an extensive techno-economic survey of machinery and equipment available must be carried out. The entrepreneur must also consult experts prior to making a selection of equipment and machinery.
Materials procurement and planning are critical to success, of a start-up with a small scale manufacturing unit. Inventory management can lead to managing cash flow situations; the otherwise if too much is ordered too soon the considerable amount of working capital gets locked up. On the other hand, non-availability may result in production hold-ups, and idle machine and manpower. For essential imported raw material whose lead-time is large proper planning is all the more essential.
8. Entrepreneurs Memorandum For Small Business Manufacturing
Registering the company with ROC is the must. As per your desired ownership pattern, you can register your manufacturing business by following ways:
- One Person Company
- Private Limited Company
- Limited Liability Partnership
- Public Limited Company
Section 8 of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 provides for the filing of a memorandum by a Micro, Small or Medium Enterprise. Sub-section (2) of section 8 stipulates that the form of the Memorandum, the procedure of its filing and other matters incidental thereto shall be such as notified by the Central Government. The memorandum may be filed by all three categories of enterprises with the District Industries Centre in the jurisdiction of which the enterprise is (or, is proposed to be) located.
Every SSI unit has to comply with various regulations in force. These include regulatory, taxation, environmental and certain product-specific clearances. This section looks into the methodology of obtaining these approvals and clearances.
9. Exemption from Compulsory Licence For Small Business Manufacturing
Licensing in the Industries sector is governed by the licensing exemption notification issued by Govt. of India on July 25, 1991, under the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951. In SSI, there are virtually no licensing restrictions. No industrial license is required except in the case of 6 product groups included in compulsory licensing (these products groups mainly cover products that can only be made in the large sector).
But if a small-scale unit employs less than 50/100 workers with/without power then it would not require a license from the Govt. of India even for the 6 product groups covered in licensing under Schedule II of the notification.
Subject to this, an entrepreneur can set up an SSI unit anywhere in the country without any restriction. The units are, of course, subject to the locational/land use and zoning restrictions in force under the local laws.
10. Clearance For Small Business Manufacturing
In initiating a small business manufacturing in India, according to the product entrepreneurs need to obtain several different clearances from different Government Authorities.
Regulatory or Taxation Clearances:
1. Registration under Sales Tax Act – Commercial Tax officer of the area concerned
2. Registration under Central Excise Act – Collector of Central Excise or his nominee for area
3. Payment of Income Tax – ITO of the area concerned
4. Registration of Partnership deed – Inspector General of the area concerned
5. Calibration of weights & measures – Weights and Measures Inspector of State
6. Power Connection – Designated Officer of State Electricity Board
7. Employee strength exceeding 10 with power connection or 20 without power – Chief Inspector of Factories
Environment & Pollution Related Clearances:
The method of granting consent underwater and air pollution to SSI units has been simplified. Except for 17 critically polluting sectors given below, in all other cases SSI units will merely have to file an application and obtain an acknowledgment which will serve the purpose of consent:
1. Fertilizer (Nitrogen/Phosphate)
4. Fermentation & Distillery
7. Thermal Power
8. Oil refinery
9. Sulphuric Acid
11. Copper Smelter
12. Zinc Smelter
13. Iron & Steel
14. Pulp & Paper
15. Dye and Dye intermediates
16. Pesticides manufacturing and formulation
17. Basic Drugs and Pharmaceuticals
Product Specific Clearances:
1. Establishing a Printing Press – District Magistrate
2. License for Cold Storage Construction – Designated Official in State
3. Pesticides – Central/State Agricultural Department – Ministry of Agriculture
4. Drugs and Pharmaceuticals – Drug license from State Drug Controller
5. Safety Matches/ Fireworks – License under Explosives Act from Directorate of Explosives, Nagpur
6. Household Electrical Appliances – License from Bureau of Indian Standards
7. Wood Working Industry within 8 km from the forest – District Forest Officer
8. Milk Processing & Milk products manufacturing units – Approval under Milk and Milk Products Order from State Agricultural/ Food Processing Industries Department above a designated capacity.
11. Quality Certifications For Small Business Manufacturing
Quality certification has become extremely important in competitive markets and especially in gaining the foothold in exports. To avail the certification of ISO-9000, a unit has to undertake significant costs; the small scale industries have been found wanting mainly on account of resource crunch to implement quality systems to obtain this certification. There is a scheme to give financial incentive to those SSI units who acquire ISO-9000 certification, by reimbursing 75% of their costs of obtaining certification, subject to a maximum of Rs. 0.75 lacs per unit.